✍️ Author: Dr Eleni Christoforidou
🕒 Approximate reading time: 4 minutes
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a unique feature of our biology. This protective boundary has a crucial role in maintaining the stable environment needed for the brain to function correctly, and a malfunctioning BBB can have significant implications for brain health.
The BBB is a semipermeable border that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). Composed primarily of endothelial cells lining the blood vessels, the BBB also involves other components such as astrocytes and pericytes, forming what's known as the neurovascular unit.
The BBB has several crucial functions:
Protection: It protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood, such as toxins, pathogens, and some drugs, by preventing their passage into the brain.
Homeostasis: It maintains the chemical composition of the brain's extracellular fluid, providing a stable environment for neuronal function.
Nutrient Transport: It selectively transports essential nutrients and molecules from the blood into the brain.
Neuronal Activity Regulation: It helps regulate neuronal activity by controlling the supply of hormones and nutrients and removing waste products.
Dysfunction or breakdown of the BBB is associated with several neurological conditions:
Multiple Sclerosis: The disruption of the BBB allows immune cells to enter the CNS, causing inflammation and damage.
Alzheimer's Disease: Some research suggests that BBB breakdown may contribute to the buildup of beta-amyloid plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease.
Stroke: In stroke, the BBB is often damaged, leading to brain oedema and worsening the injury.
Brain Tumours: BBB can restrict the delivery of therapeutic agents to brain tumours, posing a significant challenge in their treatment.
Understanding the BBB's functions and its role in disease can help develop strategies to protect it or selectively bypass it for drug delivery. Emerging techniques such as nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems and focused ultrasound are showing promise in this regard.
As we continue to unravel the complexities of the BBB, we grow closer to developing effective treatments for devastating neurological diseases that currently have limited therapeutic options.