✍️ Author: Dr Eleni Christoforidou
🕒 Approximate reading time: 4 minutes
While neurons have traditionally captured the spotlight in neuroscientific studies, glial cells are now recognised as essential players in maintaining neuronal health and function. The intricate interactions between glia and neurons could hold the key to understanding neurodegenerative diseases.
Microglia: These are the immune cells of the brain. They respond to injury, clear debris, and can either protect or harm neurons, depending on their state of activation.
Astrocytes: Star-shaped cells that provide structural and nutritional support to neurons. They also play roles in neurotransmitter uptake and blood-brain barrier maintenance.
Oligodendrocytes: They produce the myelin sheath around neuronal axons, aiding in efficient electrical signal conduction.
Neuroprotection: Astrocytes release neurotrophic factors that support neuron survival and function.
Synaptic Modulation: Glial cells can influence synaptic activity, modulating neurotransmitter release and reuptake.
Immune Regulation: Microglia survey the brain environment, ready to defend against pathogens or injuries.
Chronic Activation: Persistent activation of microglia can lead to chronic inflammation, producing neurotoxic molecules that harm neurons.
Reactive Astrocytes: In neurodegenerative conditions, astrocytes can become reactive, releasing harmful substances and losing their neuroprotective capacities.
Demyelination: In diseases like multiple sclerosis, oligodendrocytes are damaged, leading to a loss of myelin and impaired neuronal function.
Anti-inflammatory Approaches: Reducing chronic microglial activation may mitigate harmful effects on neurons.
Enhancing Glial Support: Strategies that boost the beneficial functions of astrocytes could offer neuroprotection.
Promoting Remyelination: Therapies focusing on oligodendrocyte health and function could restore myelin and improve neuronal health.
The dynamic and multifaceted interactions between glial cells and neurons have profound implications for the health of the nervous system. Unravelling these relationships provides fresh perspectives on neurodegenerative disease mechanisms and potential therapeutic avenues.