✍️ Author: Dr Eleni Christoforidou
🕒 Approximate reading time: 4 minutes
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex cell-signalling system within our bodies. Predominantly known for its role in maintaining homeostasis, emerging research suggests its significance in the context of neurodegenerative diseases.
Endocannabinoids: These are endogenous cannabinoids, lipid-based neurotransmitters produced naturally in our bodies. Two primary examples include anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglyerol (2-AG).
Receptors: Mainly CB1 (found largely in the brain) and CB2 (present in immune cells). Endocannabinoids bind to them to signal the ECS to spring into action.
Enzymes: Responsible for creating and breaking down endocannabinoids. Notable ones are fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).
Neuroprotection: The ECS modulates neuroinflammatory responses and has shown potential in limiting brain damage after traumatic injuries.
Memory and Learning: CB1 receptors play pivotal roles in synaptic plasticity, crucial for learning and memory processes.
Neuroinflammation: Through CB2 receptors, the ECS can modulate immune responses in the brain.
Alzheimer's Disease: ECS dysregulation has been observed, with increased CB2 expression suggesting an inflammatory response. Modulating the ECS might offer therapeutic potential.
Parkinson's Disease: ECS is involved in modulating dopamine levels and neuroinflammation, offering potential therapeutic targets.
Huntington's Disease: Early-stage research suggests that enhancing endocannabinoid signalling may mitigate neurodegeneration.
CB1 Agonists: Enhancing CB1 signalling might offer neuroprotection and alleviate motor symptoms in certain neurodegenerative disorders.
CB2 Agonists: Given the anti-inflammatory properties linked to CB2 activation, they may offer benefits, especially in conditions with pronounced neuroinflammation.
Enzyme Modulation: Inhibiting enzymes like FAAH can elevate endocannabinoid levels, providing potential therapeutic benefits.
The intricate dance of the endocannabinoid system has profound implications for brain health. Its modulation offers promising avenues for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases, warranting further rigorous research.